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ItemA CASE STUDY OF PERSONALIZED LEARNING IN THE BILINGUAL ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMSuarez-Ortiz, Juan PStudent, Juan SuarezOrtiz., A Case Study of Personalized Learning in the Elementary Bilingual Classroom. Doctor of Education (EdD in Executive Education Leadership), Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas, May of 2022. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of instruction delivered in both English and Spanish using the Preview-View-Review (PVR) strategy on the language development of English Learners (ELs) newcomer students in Title I elementary school (matriculated in a large, urban southern school district). For this study, the researcher used quantitative archival study from a selected elementary school in a large urban southern school district. The researcher used archival data points to compare participant´s STAAR assessments results. Findings In this case study, the instructional approaches implemented throughout the four years are evident based on the student performance data of STAAR in grades third through fifth. Data findings demonstrated that the most significant results were seen in math and science, the the strategy of Preview-View-Review was implemented in those grade levels, as well as the bilingual strategies of Bridge and Translanguaging. Conclusions The Preview-View-Review bilingual strategy provides English Learner Newcomer students with opportunities to learn academic concepts using cross-linguistic connections to transfer different aspects of language and at the same time allow students to pair-share in their home language to summarize key concepts. In addition, data findings from this case study demonstrates that when bilingual and ESL teachers personalized instruction for English Learner Newcomer students have the opportunity to prioritize their own goals, learn at their own pace, and be the owner to their learning. ItemA Collective Case Study to Examine Teachers' Perceptions of Peer Coaching for Technology Integration and its Influences on Teachers' Knowledge and EffectivenessColburn, Sjerrie WaynetteThe purpose of this collective case study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of peer coaching for technology integration and its influences on teachers’ knowledge and effectiveness. Although there are numerous types of mixed-method designs, the researcher selected the Sequential Explanatory Design due to its use of qualitative research to explain and interpret quantitative findings. For this collective case study, the researcher used purposive sampling to identify 10 teacher participants from a selected middle school in a southwest urban school district. A collective case study approach using three distinctive cross-sectional research surveys to provide 360° feedback were used for data collection. The findings from this collective case study suggested that peer coaching for technology integration provides great promises toward influencing teachers’ efficacy and student achievement. ItemA COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LATINO PRINCIPALS AND CAMPUS ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH AFFECTING STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN TITLE I URBAN PRIMARY SCHOOLSSiboldi, Pablo GermanThe purpose of this comparative study was to examine the personal experiences of Hispanic and/or Latino Principals and how their leadership styles affect the Organizational Health of the primary education campus they administer. Furthermore, this study focuses on analyzing how the culture, climate, and overall organizational health of each campus affects student achievement through the perceptions of teachers through the administration of the Organizational Health – Index Survey provided by Hoy & Tarter (1997) designed for primary school campuses. The findings of this comparative qualitative research study suggest that schools that focus on strengthening relationships between administrators and teachers will be those that will inevitably have a positive health in their overall organization. Additionally, as seen through the use of the Organizational Health – Index survey created by Hoy & Tarter (1997) and administered in this research study, schools that focus on building a connection between the members of campus that have the power to steer the climate and culture of the school (i.e. administrators, teachers) will be those that will be successful and have staff that is more committed to the success of the campus as a whole. When positive relationships can be made in the school setting and the effects of the administrative efforts can be seen by the teaching staff, a positive health for the overall organization within the school will be evident. ItemA Comparison of Male and Female Texas Elementary Principals' Priorities in Increasing Student Achievement in Title I SchoolsBailey, Cicely HawkinsABSTRACT Bailey, Cicely Hawkins., A Comparison of Male and Female Texas Elementary Principals’ Priorities in Increasing Student Achievement in Title I Schools. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2021. Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The researcher examined male and female principals serving at a Title I elementary school that has been reported by TEA as a “met standards” campus. To guide this study, the researcher examined male and female elementary school principals' predominant priorities in increasing student achievement at low socioeconomic Title I schools. Male and female Title I school principals engaged in the study ranked the five themes found in the Advancing Educational Leadership (AEL) conceptual framework to identify their priorities that guide their leadership toward meeting state standards based on the TEA Accountability System. The qualified participants were male and female Title I elementary principals serving in a southeastern region school district in Texas. Thirty-nine percent (39%) of the survey participants were male principals, and 61% of the survey participants were female principals serving in a Title I school. Qualitative data was collected for the study and found 54.5% of the male and 52.9% of the female participants referred to the establishing and sustaining vision, mission, and goals are valuable to student achievement and the organization's success. The least predominant priorities were 63.6% of the male participants, and 47% of the female participants referred to managing data and processes as the least priority. Participants addressed their leadership style in the research; the study found that the participants' dominant leadership style was shared leadership. The participants’ responses referenced the importance of establishing and sustaining the organization's vision, mission, and goals, which could directly impact student achievement. The study captured managing data and processes may have limited contribution towards increasing student achievement. Based on the principals’ leadership styles, the study showed a need for male and female leaders to incorporate shared leadership practices within their leadership style. The study connected male and female leaders will benefit from understanding that shared leadership empowers members of the organization to utilize their talents and professional skills, which helps sustain the organization's success. This study's findings indicate a need to research further the predominant priorities of elementary teachers, superintendents, secondary principals in reference to student achievement using the Advancing Educational Leadership conceptual framework. Keywords: critical success factors, turnaround principal, improvement required, leadership, low poverty schools, high poverty schools, met standards, school improvement, student achievement, vision, mission, goals, data, shared leadership, transformational leadership ItemA DESCRIPTION OF THE CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALE PRESIDENTS AT POST-SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONSSmith, Chaundra LatriceABSTRACT Smith, Chaundra L., A description of the challenges and successes of African American female presidents at post-secondary educational institutions. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May, 9, 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of African American females regarding their progression toward presidency at post-secondary educational institutions. This study described the experiences of current African American female presidents in the academy in reaching their level of professional success. Methodology Five participants, who self-identified as African American female presidents, were the first presidents of their college. They shared their experiences by responding to research questions that allowed them to expound on challenges and successes encountered before, during and after achieving the position of College President. Findings from the study indicated that gender presented a challenge for participants, as they had to continuously prove themselves to colleagues and subordinates that they could do the job well. In addition, the study's findings emphasized the importance and huge advantage mentoring played in each participant's experience and in shaping the perception of each participant's self-image and confidence. Networking, training, and being knowledgeable about politics, administration, financials, and administration were also found to be essential and pertinent to the journey of college president. In conclusion, this study provides a description of the challenges and successes of African American female presidents Findings Two emergent themes were identified in the examination of the challenges African American female presidents encountered during their journey to presidency, gender and race. Participants expressed how their gender and race were challenges for them as they pursued the seat of president. These challenges continued even after obtaining the executive position but became motivating factors for the participants. Five emergent themes materialized when looking at successful strategies that helped participants obtain the president position: mentoring, spirituality, and family, networking and training. Mentoring showed to be a heavily viable source for the participants and something they encourage and do themselves. Spirituality was another successful strategy participants relied on heavily to navigate the injustices and challenges that could have easily begot them, but instead allowed them to continue their journey to the position. Family was the support each participant needed to conjugate who they were with the work they did and be effective in both. Networking provided participants with connections needed to get into otherwise closed doors and be exposed to individuals who could help in reaching the presidency. Training was a necessary component to achieve the position and be successful in the position. Training allowed participants to be better acclimated with the operations, politics, and better know and understand the institution as a whole. Conclusions The responses from participants in this study described the challenges encountered on their journey to becoming college president. Based on the responses by participants it is imperative African American females understand the challenges that will arise and utilize successful strategies of good mentorship, spirituality, family, networking, and proper training. The researcher’s aspiration is that the findings of this study will encourage aspiring African American female leaders to embark upon the journey of becoming a college/university president. KEY WORDS: African American Female, Critical Race Theory, Gender, Glass ceiling, Marginalization, Mentoring, President, Post-secondary education; Black Feminist Thought, Challenges, Success ItemA Mixed Methods Analysis of Organizational Health and Its Impact on High School Assistant Principal BurnoutSells, Britney RThis mixed methods study analyzed the effect organizational health has on high school assistant principal burnout. The Organizational Health framework for secondary schools consists of seven dimensions: Institutional Integrity, Initiating Structure, Consideration, Principal Influence, Resource Support, Morale, and Academic Emphasis (Hoy & Feldman, 1987). The Maslach Burnout Inventory measures an individual's experience with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment within the workplace (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Participant responses to the Organizational Health Inventory for Secondary Schools (Hoy & Feldman, 1987), the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators Survey (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), and the open-ended responses will collectively ascertain the assistant principal's workplace experiences. Participants were assistant principals from high schools within several independent school districts in Southeast, Texas. Through mixed methods data analysis, relationships were found within the constructs of the MBI-ES and OHI-S. The qualitative data provided themes of supporting the well-being of others, negative attitudes, and leading through crisis. Relationships, recognition, support, communication with stakeholders, self-efficacy, and mental health emerged as subthemes. ItemA MIXED-METHODS STUDY ON LATINA COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF BARRIERS TO AND SUPPORTS FOR ON-TIME PROGRAM COMPLETIONTrevino, Chris De La CerdaTrevino, Chris D. A mixed-methods study on Latina community college students’ perceptions of barriers to and supports for on-time program completion. Doctor of Education in Executive Educational Leadership, May 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this study was to describe Latina students’ perceptions regarding barriers to and support for on-time program completion. Also, the researcher describes Latina community college students’ perceptions regarding recommendations for supports that may increase on-time program completion. Program completion defined as satisfying all the academic requirements needed to attain a certificate, degree, or credits required for transfer to a four-year institution within two years. In this study, the researcher used a mixed-method approach to explore and more clearly describe the essence of current enrolled community college Latina participants’ from ages 18 years and older from a southeast Texas community college system. The method used included demographic questions, Likert scale questions, and open-ended questions. The participants identified the primary barriers as (a) balancing work and family, (b) financial issues, (c) family issues, and (d) anxiety and stress. The main supports included (a) academic advising, (b) financial resources, (c) family and friends, and (d) student resources. The participants’ recommendations were (a) tutoring, (b) child care, (c) academic advising, and (d) financial aid. These findings can assist higher education institutions in discerning and improving retention and graduation for Latina community college students. ItemA PHENOMENOLOGICAL NARRATIVE STUDY OF SUCCESSFUL AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES WHO WERE IDENTIFIED AS SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN THE K-12 SETTINGKing, Roshundria Valee Kishun JanaABSTRACT King, Roshundria., A Phenomenological narrative study of successful African American males who were identified as special education students in the K-12 Setting. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2018, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this phenomenological narrative was to understand the experiences of successful African American males who were identified as special education students while in the K-12 setting. For this study, successful African American males are defined as those who completed and graduated from a post-secondary institution. All six individuals who participated in the research study were former special education students who received a post-secondary degree. The participants self-identified their own experiences as a special education student. The research questions allowed for further investigation into how special education disabilities’ stereotypes were overcome. Findings indicated that self-motivation is the most dominant components of participants who received a post-secondary degree. Findings also emphasized the importance of the positive impact of mentors and mother figures. This study provides current and former African American males of special education with knowledge about how to overcome the stigma associated with special education disabilities. KEY WORDS: African American Males, Successful, Self-determination, Disproportionate/Overrepresentation, Emotional and Behavior disorder, IDEA, Pedagogy, Post-secondary education, Response to Intervention (RTI) ItemA PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS IMPLEMENTING A SOCIAL EMOTIONAL LEARNING PROGRAM WITH AT-RISK STUDENTSBrod, KellyThe purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, research, understand, and document the lived experiences of middle school teachers implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk students. Specifically, the researcher examined the perception of teachers regarding what professional development is needed to successfully implement a social emotional learning curriculum and the effectiveness of the curriculum with at-risk middle school students. The researcher also examined what strategies teachers believe are most effective when implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk middle school students and how teachers can utilize the tenets of the social emotional lessons throughout the year to promote a significant change in classroom culture. The researcher implemented a phenomenological research design that included an open-ended survey, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group with five different middle school teachers who were involved with implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk students. The results of the study indicated that teachers must be well-supported and trained properly to implement a social emotional learning curriculum effectively within their classroom, the social emotional learning curriculum should only be a piece of the social emotional program on a campus, and the lessons with at-risk students should be conducted in small groups, with more discussions instead of class work. ItemA PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS IMPLEMENTING A SOCIAL EMOTIONAL LEARNING PROGRAM WITH AT-RISK STUDENTSBrod, KellyThe purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, research, understand, and document the lived experiences of middle school teachers implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk students. Specifically, the researcher examined the perception of teachers regarding what professional development is needed to successfully implement a social emotional learning curriculum and the effectiveness of the curriculum with at-risk middle school students. The researcher also examined what strategies teachers believe are most effective when implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk middle school students and how teachers can utilize the tenets of the social emotional lessons throughout the year to promote a significant change in classroom culture. The researcher implemented a phenomenological research design that included an open-ended survey, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group with five different middle school teachers who were involved with implementing a social emotional learning curriculum with at-risk students. The results of the study indicated that teachers must be well-supported and trained properly to implement a social emotional learning curriculum effectively within their classroom, the social emotional learning curriculum should only be a piece of the social emotional program on a campus, and the lessons with at-risk students should be conducted in small groups, with more discussions instead of class work. ItemA Phenomenological Study on Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding the Implementation of a Blended Learning ProgramJohnson, keyshaJohnson, Keysha., A Phenomenological Study on Teachers’ perceptions regarding the implementation of the blended learning program. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The research findings show academic success from the teachers’ perceptions regarding the implementation of the blended learning program based on what is being an offered from the program. The program offered the following: personalized learning plans, hybrid formats, peer tutoring, and in restoring credits. Teacher’s recommendations for improving the implementation of the blended learning program offered additional resources, ongoing professional development during the summer throughout the school year. Also, to those recommendations, teachers stated the need to design models to align with the uniqueness of the blended learning program. Implications for this study indicated that the blended learning program meets the needs of the student population in this research. Keywords: academic deficient, blended learning program, drop-out, graduation, low-income, minorities, online, learning retention, and inclusive services. ItemA QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION OF THE SUCCESS OF BLACK WOMEN PHOTOGRAPHERS UTILIZING THE SELF-DETERMINATION THEORYColvin, Tomayia Tameka LynieeColvin, Tomayia T., A Qualitative Examination of the Success of Black Women Photographers Utilizing the Self-Determination Theory. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological case study was to identify factors that contribute to the success of Black women photographer business owners related to the self-determination theory. For this study, successful Black women photographer business owners are those who earn at least 50% of their individual income from photography via self-employment or commissioned work, with gross earnings of more than $30,000 per year from commissioned work, and who have the ability to create images with high technical skill or merit. The participants self-identified their experiences as Black women photography business owners. The research questions allowed participants to share their lived experiences related to the self-determination factors that contributed to their professional success. Findings indicated that autonomous factors such as having the freedom and ability to take control of their business and be able to fulfill their life’s purpose through photography contributed to participants’ feelings of success. Participants demonstrated the relatedness factor through deep connections to their clients and colleagues and via support received from other photographers. Participants described a sense of effectiveness in their technical skills and business acumen that they attributed to communication and praise from other photographers, demonstrating the competence factor. Participants noted that an appreciation for Black culture and lifestyle had a positive impact on their photography business. This study provides Black women photographers the framework to envision iv success, and offers photography industry practitioners and camera companies recommendations on how to support the success of Black women photographers in the photography industry. Keywords: Black Women Photographers, Success, Self-Determination Theory, Entrepreneurship ItemA QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STUDENTS’ STAAR SCORES THAT PARTICIPATE IN THE 21ST CENTURY COMMUNITY LEARNING PROGRAM COMPARED TO STUDENTS THAT ARE NOT IN THE PROGRAMThomas, Montra MariaABSTRACT Thomas, M. M., A quasi-experimental study on students’ staar scores that participate in the 21st century community learning program compared to students that are not in the program. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine and compare the STAAR scores of 4th and 5th grade student participants of the 21st Century Community Learning Program to students who did not partake in the program. The goal was to see if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Providing enriching academic opportunities during after school hours to assist in closing the academic gap was the primary focus of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (Mahoney et al. 2009). Non-academic activities associated with the after-school programs have shown to have positive implications for youth developmental outcomes (Richards et al. 2004; Apsler 2009; Bohnert et al. 2009; Durlak et al. 2010). Researchers believe that children can greatly benefit from programs geared to develop youth during out-of-school time (Anderson-Butcher, Stretler, & Midle, 2006; Durlak, Mahoney, Bohnert, &Parente, 2010; Iachini & Anderson-Butcher, 2012; Jenner & Jenner, 2007). Methodology This study used a quantitative design with a correlational research approach to examine and compare the scores of 4th and 5th grade students that participated in the 21st Century Community Learning Center Program to the students that did not partake in the program. In so doing, the researcher gained knowledge on the effectiveness of the afterschool program in the student’s academics. Conclusions The findings from this study provided further evidence of the effectiveness of the 21st CCLC program on student achievement in the STAAR Reading and Math assessments. This investigation showed that the program had an overall positive effect on student participants and their academic achievement on the STAAR test. ItemACADEMICALLY UNDER-PREPARED AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SUPPORTS FOR AND BARRIERS TO PROGRAM COMPLETIONHarrell II, John R.John H., Academically under-prepared African American community college students’ perceptions of supports for and barriers to program completion. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May, 2019, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the perceptions of academically under-prepared African American community college students regarding supports for and barriers to program completion. For the purpose of this study, program completion will be defined as satisfying all the academic requirements needed to attain a certificate, degree, or credits required for transfer to a four-year institution within two years. The institution that is the focus of this study has programs in place for student success. However, the effectiveness of these programs has not been evaluated through students’ feedback. Methodology In this mixed-method study, I utilized elements of phenomenological research. In addition, frequencies and percentages were used to address Likert-scaled items on the questionnaire that was used in this study. Findings The findings of research questions one and two indicated that at Houston Community College’s Central Campus academically under-prepared students of any race identified similar supports for and barriers to on-time program completion. The primary supports for on-time community college program completion identified by the students included engaged faculty and robust, holistic wrap-around services. Conversely, the primary barriers to on-time community college program completion identified by the students included financial burden, complex processes, and disengaged staff. Additionally, students identified time management and faculty with little pedagogical knowledge as barriers to on-time program completion. Conclusions The economics and demographic make-up of the state continue to shift, but the primary mission for community colleges remains consistent and remains important. Community College ultimately exists to meet the diverse needs of students as they work towards attaining a post-secondary credential. As our country continues to become more diverse and more minority students enter the doors of our nation’s community colleges in hopes of attaining a credential that supports their professional growth, it becomes vital that we work to remove the barriers that lime access, persistence, and attainment. KEY WORDS: African American students, Community College, Student persistence, Enrollment intensity, Graduation rates ItemADMINISTRATORS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESTORATIVE PRACTICES AT SELECTED URBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN SOUTHEAST TEXASCharles, Kelli MichelleABSTRACT Charles, Kelli., Administrators’ perceptions of the implementation of restorative practices at selected urban elementary schools in Southeast Texas. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2019, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to examine the implementation of Restorative Practices in selected elementary schools in southeast Texas. Restorative Practices will generally be defined as a social science that studies how to build social capital and achieve social discipline through participatory learning and decision making (Wachtel, 2016). This study included six school-based administrators who served in the roles of principals, assistant principals and counselors. The research questions allowed for further investigation into Restorative Practices and how students and teachers benefited from the implementation of weekly Community Building Circles. Findings indicated the positive impact circles had on classroom culture, as well as improved teacher-student relationships. This study provides administrators with knowledge about how to implement Restorative Practices in a meaningful and sustained way. KEY WORDS: Restorative Practices, Circles, Restorative justice, Restorative justice in schools, Social emotional learning, Classroom discipline, School discipline, Alternatives to suspension, Zero tolerance policies, School-to-Prison-pipeline, Exclusionary discipline practices, School culture, Classroom culture, Suspension ItemADMINISTRATORS’ PERSPECTIVES ON MENTORING AND DEVELOPING ASPIRING AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES FOR EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP ROLES IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONSChamberlain III, DonaldChamberlain, D., Administrators’ Perspectives on Mentoring and Developing Aspiring African American Males for Executive Leadership Roles in Higher Education Institutions. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2022, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The present study examined the perspectives of current administrators in higher education institutions on the mentorship and development of aspiring African American male administrators within higher education institutions. Selected participants were asked to complete a one hour and 30-minute semi-structured focus group interview. During this interview, the participants were asked a series of seven questions that engaged their perspectives on whether mentorship had an impact on their careers as administrators in higher education. Participants within this study were selected based on convenience and were all administrators in higher education (i.e., Dean, Assistant Dean, Associate Dean, Vice President, Assistant Vice President, Associate Vice President, President, Chancellor, Associate Vice Chancellor). ItemAFRICAN AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PARENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF HOW PARENTING STYLES AFFECT CHILDREN’S BEHAVIORSPutman , Kelli ChristinePutman, Kelli, C., African American Christian Parents’ Perceptions of How Parenting Style Affects Children’s Behavior Doctor of Education: Educational Leadership Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this study was to determine African American parents’ perspectives on how a foundation of Christianity and parenting styles affects children’s behavior. It is important to identify parenting styles, the social and emotional, and the religiosity foundation throughout a child’s development; each one can be affected depending on the variations of each factor. In this mixed-method study, the researcher used qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative data was collected through the instrument titled Smart Survey. The survey consisted of 53 questions. The qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions guided by the researcher and later transcribed through Scribie. The focus group was conducted via Zoom technology. The participants were gathered voluntarily and were recruited through social media from both Facebook and Instagram. Data from the survey, open-ended questions and the focus group were analyzed based on common themes that were derived from participant responses. Based on the data collected from Spiritual Well -being Survey section, the mean identified that the participants agreed with the following: I believe that God loves and cares about me. The survey question that most parents strongly disagreed with creating the highest mean was: I don’t get much personal strength and support from my God. The data from the survey was able to identify the parenting styles that was favorable amongst the African American Christian parents who were surveyed. The data showed that the participants favored Authoritative parenting practices over Permissive parenting practices and Authoritarian parenting practices. The data reveals that African American parents believe that Christianity influences the behaviors of their children. The themes of the open- ended responses provided that Christian influences can cause a positive impact on negative behaviors such as overuse of technology, comparing self-image, secrecy and talking back. When parents lead by example, involve their children in Christian activities, and use Christian influences children are less likely to demonstrate negative behaviors when their parents talk through things, give consequences, and provide rewards. ItemAFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN ADMINISTRATORS’ PERSPECTIVES OF CAREER BARRIERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLSBeasley, Toshiba QianaPurpose The purpose of this study is to describe the perspectives of African American women secondary school administrators’ experiences regarding career barriers in the workplace. African American women in secondary education are challenged with many career barriers. For this study, educational administrators are defined as superintendent, principals, and assistant principals in the secondary setting. In addition, horizontal violence amongst African American women research has primarily focused on the nursing field by several researchers (Farrel, 1999; Fudge, 2006; Sadala & De Adorno, 2001; Thomas & Burk, 2009); since there is limited research on horizontal violence in the educational leadership field. The researchers that have studied horizontal violence in educational leadership are (Edson,1988; Funk, 2004; Martin-Ogburn, 2012; Matthews, 1995; Randolph, 2015). According to Linda Tillman (2004), much of the research on African American women in education is conducted by White researchers. Methodology The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe the perspectives of African American women secondary school administrators, experiences regarding horizontal violence in the workplace. The qualitative research methodology of hermeneutical phenomenology was used for the study. A total of eight African American women administrators of secondary schools were the participants. These women were interviewed to gain knowledge of their feelings and to learn what they perceived and sensed through their own self-awareness and experiences. Findings Findings from the interviews showed differences in perspectives based on age groups. The interview questions chosen showed various aspects of career barriers African American women administrators in secondary schools’ experience. In particular, the questions displayed their lived experience of horizontal violence. The emergent themes were: (a) African American women secondary school administrators feel that they are not supported at the campus level and district level; (b) African American women secondary school administrators ages 51 and over viewed support differently from the younger participants; (c) African American women secondary school administrators did not know how to put horizontal violence into words; (d) African American women secondary school administrators are micromanaged; (e) African American women secondary school administrators often experience verbal abuse and sabotage in their role of administrator; (f) African American women administrators of secondary schools who experienced horizontal violence had increased likelihood of health issues; (g) African American women administrators of secondary schools who are 45 years of age and up will not take off work because of horizontal violence; (h) The ability to ignore horizontal violence shows your strength; (i) The generalizations African American women secondary school administrators face that negatively impact reputation and performance; and (j) The perception that African American women secondary school administrators do not require support. Conclusions Based on the responses from the participants in this study, people will see the importance of teaching educational staff about the calamities African American women face while trying to pursue career advancement. This study will also enlighten oppressed populations of their oppression, in order to liberate them. Most importantly it will encourage African American women administrators to become mentors to other African American women on the journey to becoming an administrator. KEY WORDS: Administrator, African American Woman, Career Barriers, Colorism, Crabs in a Barrel, Horizontal Violence, Secondary Setting, Workplace Bullying. ItemAFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EDUCATIONAL LEADERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONSBrown , LenaAbstract Brown, L., African American Women Educational Leaders’ Perceptions of Mental Health Interventions. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership in Mental Health and Human Services), May, 2022, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. This study explores the perceptions of African American women in educational leadership roles regarding mental health interventions. This study also has a purpose of identifying the mental health interventions that African American women in educational leadership feel most comfortable participating in. The long-term effects of mental health services on a personal and professional level are discussed as well. This study uses a mixed methods approach, which includes a resilience questionnaire followed by individual interviews of ten African American women in various educational leadership positions. Three major themes were discovered through the process of data collection as well. (1) Religion and church communities are the preferred method of combatting mental health concerns, (2) African American women in educational leadership roles have an exceptional level of resilience, and (3) Stigma is still a lingering issue in the African American community as it relates to mental health. ItemAn Analysis of Best Practices To Teach Formal Writing Skills in AP High School CoursesWalker, ShaTrieceFormal writing skills are essential to the professional development of students planning to attend college or the work force upon graduating from high school. This quantitative study examines best practices and frequencies for writing using AP high school courses across content areas. This study will provide evidence of how frequencies of best practices for writing contributes to student writing success which can be reflected on outcome scores demonstrated on AP exams. 9 th through 12th grade teachers who teach AP courses in English, History, Math, and Science answer a 19 question survey which outlined best practices for writing and different frequencies for student engagement. There are a total of nine best practices which include identifying similarities, summary and practice, providing recognition and reinforcing effort, non-linguistic representation, cooperative learning environment, setting objectives and providing feedback, generating and testing hypothesis, and cues, questions, and graphic organizers are some of the best practices that are considered throughout this study. Each survey question asks about the best practices and the frequency is determined in the following manner: never, yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily. At the end of the study, the research will provide evidence of best practices for writing are used across AP content areas to help students improve their writing and develop their writing capabilities.