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- ItemTEACHERS’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF TOKEN ECONOMY SYSTEMS TO INFLUENCE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIORAkpotaire, Nneka Nne-NneThis study relates to the field of psychology because it addresses three theories rooted in the psychology of learning. These theories assert that the process of learning cannot be measured or quantified; instead it is observed when there is a change in behavior (Terry, 2009). Certain factors can influence the learning process, such as the use of reinforcements. Reinforcements are often utilized in learning to produce operant behavior. Hoque’s (2013) study demonstrated how the use of reinforcements in a school setting resulted in changes in the students’ behavior and academic performance. The study’s participants consisted of 100 students that were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group. In the study, both groups were taught by the same teacher for a month. The groups also completed the same two chapters from an assigned textbook. The experimental group was taught with a rewards system in place, whereas the control group was taught without one. Unit tests and quizzes to assess the students’ learning were administered weekly. The results of the study revealed that the experimental group had higher test scores and retained more information. The control group retained less information and were unable to apply the information as well as the experimental group. The results also showed that the rewards system motivated the experimental group to become actively engaged in the learning process by being willing to ask questions or to volunteer their answers. The control group exhibited less interest and participation in class (Hoque, 2013). The researcher concluded that the study supported the importance of operant condition in the acquisition of new information.
- ItemTHE IMPACT OF COURT-APPOINTED ACCOUNTABILITY ON VETERANS’ QUALITY OF LIFEBohannon, Jonathan RobertThe present research study examined veterans utilizing the program Veterans’ Court and the impact accountability has on their quality of life. The study used quantitative and qualitative measures to be able to determine is accountability and their coping mechanism have an impact on their view of their quality of life. The measures utilized were the Quality of Life 8 index, coping mechanisms 4 question survey, accountability 4-question survey, as well as demographics and military information. The questionnaire packet was given to veterans from felony and misdemeanor Veterans’ Court in Fall of 2018 and Spring of 2019. Veterans completed the surveys based on their perspective on how they viewed their quality of life and interpretation of accountability and coping mechanisms. The researcher hypothesized that veterans with healthy coping mechanisms had a better quality of life, having accountability causes veterans to adapt healthy coping mechanisms, veterans from misdemeanor court would have a different outlook than veterans from felony court and that differences in ages in veterans will have a difference in rating their quality of life.
- ItemA CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS BETWEEN ASPD AND OTHER FACTORSLey, NormanABSTRACT Ley, Norman. A Correlational Analysis between ASPD and other factors.. Master of Arts in Psychology, December, 2019, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between ASPD and other factors. Specifically, the researcher conducted correlational analyses between undergraduate GPA and ASPD, Gender and ASPD, Five Factor model agreeableness and ASPD & Five Factor model agreeableness and ASPD social aggression. The participants of this study consisted of, n = 114 undergraduate students currently enrolled at Houston Baptist University. Unfortunately, after correlational analyses were conducted, all 4 hypotheses were rejected. However, the researcher did confirm 2 pertinent significant relationships. First, the researcher found that women were more socially aggressive than men. In addition, the research confirmed that women tend to score higher on social aggression than aggression associated with the entire construct of ASPD. . KEY WORDS: ASPD, Five Factor model, Agreeableness
- ItemThe Fitbit Study: A Tale of Patriotic Purchase HabitsBogle, Sean AlexanderThe objectives of this study are to measure the influence that self-perceived patriotism and athleticism has on intentions and purchase behaviors. In the current experiment, participants will receive information about Fitbit tracking devices, and then will then select, if interested, a Fitbit device of a given price. It is anticipated that individuals that are more patriotic and athletic will select more Fitbit tracking devices at higher prices based on the current consumer trends in American culture along with the basic nature of the fitness tracking product. KEY WORDS: consumerism, patriotism, athleticism, fitness, advertisement, purchase habits
- ItemSexist Events and Its Impact on Depression in WomenGalindo, CelesteThe author of the present study contributes to research on the role of sexism in women’s health by examining how sexist events and benevolent sexist beliefs impact levels of depression in women. A questionnaire comprised of The Schedule of Sexist Events (SSE), Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to 76 female students at a private, Christian university. Bivariate correlations were conducted. The results found a positive correlation between reported sexist events and levels of depression. There were no correlations between sexist beliefs, depression levels, and reporting sexist events. The results of the research supported previous studies that stated that sexism negatively impacts mental health. Further implications, limitations, and need for future research were discussed.
- ItemExploring Factors Associated with Academic Self-EfficacyDeLeon, Rickki DanielABSTRACT Academic self-efficacy (ASE) is the level of confidence one has in his or her ability to meet academic goals. Research has demonstrated the significance of ASE to performance; however, many university students lack ASE, thereby hindering their performance. This study provides information regarding factors that facilitate ASE, which in turn support achievement. The factors explored were performance accomplishments (PA), educator support, support from family and friends and vicarious learning via academic role-models. This study found no significant relationship between ASE and PA. However, results yielded a significant correlation between ASE and educator support as well as between ASE and support from family and friends. Finally, this study found no significant relationship between ASE and academic role-models. Ultimately, ASE is influenced by the amount of support students perceive to have available to them but is not contingent upon historical factors, such as prior experience, nor is ASE significantly influenced by their family’s academic experiences.
- ItemThe Effects of Herd Mentality on BehaviorKurdi, AbdurhmanThis study conducted a meta-analysis in order to determine the power that herd mentality has on the behavior of an individual. Most of the existing literature emphasizes on how herd mentality is effective for manipulating the masses, however, this study was designed to focus on the use of manipulation between gender and herd size. The methodology for this study was based off Loxton, et. al. (2020) procedures from their meta-analysis of panic buying, herd mentality, and media influencing. Analyzing the volume and timing of consumer spending patterns; the volumes of spending on specific, highly demanded consumer goods during the investigative period; and the implications of media use to influence the masses. Results suggested that the COVID-19 crisis appears to align with behaviors exhibited during historic shock events, in other words, herd mentality affected the behavior of individuals given a crisis. In conclusion, this study seeks to expand this body of research by exploring the effects of herd mentality on behavior.
- ItemGuilt and Affect from the Aggressors Perspective; A Quantitative StudyMark, AliciaWhat are the factors that influence the perspective of someone who engages in aggressive behavior? What makes some people remorseful over their actions while others appear apathetic? For this study we seek to answer these and other questions. Various factors considered include: affect/guilt, perceived severity of the incident, type of aggressive act committed and time lapse since the incident occurred, among others. This research will be obtained as a means for acquiring knowledge. It is imperative because it will help to draw general inferences about human behavior that can be applied to other studies and possibly provide a guide for intervention. The proposed quantitative study is conducted using the scientific method which allows us to describe, predict, understand and control behavior. Keywords: detachment, remorse, shame/guilt, forgiveness, aggression, violence
- ItemAN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY COMPARING THE BIDIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MARIJUANA USE AND DEPRESSION IN EMERGING YOUNG ADULTSTorres, Stephanie LynnMarijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, and depression is the most widely diagnosed mental health condition in the United States. While there has been much research on both topics, the question of how they are related is still up for debate. The works, articles and research has not adequately addressed the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and adolescent depression. This research study found statistically significant data within the confines of demographics; in addition to several sets of data corroborating past research on the complex and complicated relationship between adolescent marijuana use and depression. The intent of this research study was to help identify what comes first in adolescence; depressive episodes that lead to marijuana use, or early marijuana use leading to depressive symptoms. The findings showed the median age of onset for depression was 15 years old for marijuana users, and the initial marijuana use for those with severe depression was also 15 years old. All other categories had median onset for both depression and marijuana use as 17 years old. This information clarified the complexity of this relationship deeming a perfectly bidirectional relationship. This research study also revealed biological predisposition, the rate of use/depression among non-users as well as how religion, race, and political affiliation effect marijuana use and depression. The intent for this study is to gather information to be used towards research in preventative measures for adolescents who are at risk for addiction or mental health issues.
- ItemPsychological Health of Injured College AthletesWilliams, DaMarkoIt is said that an individual’s health can be broken down into three parts: physical, social and mental. All of which work together to make up a person’s overall state of well-being. With the nature of sport today, injuries are very common amongst athletes. It is apparent that an injured athlete is affected physically because of their injury, but it does not stop there. There is ample amount of research over injured athletes; however, the majority of the research only focuses on the physiological aspect while neglecting the psychological component. This study is intended to shed light on the psychological health and emotional hardships college athletes endure during an injury. All 104 participants in this study were Division I athletes from various sports ranging in age from 18-24. Half of the participants were males and half of the participants were females. The study revealed that there are multiple factors that potentially affect an athlete’s mental state during an injury. The two main factors that were the central focus of this study were stress and anxiety. Injured athletes had significantly heightened levels of both. The results of this study can be used to see the need to pay closer attention to an athlete’s mental state during an injury instead of focusing solely on the physical aspect of injuries. Ultimately, this could help create healthier athletes and healthier individuals as a whole.
- ItemPersonality Traits: A Bidirectional Model of the Effects of Social Media Use on Self-EsteemRashall, Nicholas LeeThe purpose of this study was to discover the traits that would predispose an individual to low self-esteem as a result of social media use. Previous research suggested that self-esteem was affected by a combination of an individual’s amount of social media use, social media platform(s) used, sex, and the individual’s personality traits. Because of this, this study expected to see self-esteem have significant relationships with sex, personality traits, time spent on social media, platforms used, and an interaction between age and sex. A web-based survey containing informed consent, the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and a demographic questionnaire was provided to potential participants at a university who could complete it at their leisure. Statistical analyses and a post hoc analysis were used to partially accept one hypothesis and reject the rest. Openness to experience and neuroticism were found to be the most predictive personality traits as they were related to most or all others as well as to self-esteem. The total number of platforms was also found to be significantly related to openness to experience as well as amount of time spent on social media. No other significant results were obtained, though many minor trends were observed. These results support a bidirectional model in which personality traits influence the relationship between social media and self-esteem, and in which adjusting social media use can alter personality and increase self-esteem.
- ItemThe Relationship Between Academic Success and Social SupportPerez III, JavierAbstract The following research study was conducted since November 2019. This research focuses on discovering the direct positive correlation between academic success and social support. This study was influenced by Erikson’s theory and Freud’s theory due to identity development and how influences as children influence behavior as adults. The college environment of a student affects whether he/she will succeed in college as determined by motivational figures. This depends as well on the social support given to these students. Social support in college includes resources such as freshmen success courses on-campus. Student’s identity development and manifestation is also affected by their integration into the college environment. It’s hypothesized that a direct positive correlation exists between social support and academic success. “Social support” is defined as interactions with others face to face. “Academic success” is defined as grade point average (GPA) and grades earned last year. The same hypothesis was correlated with gender, cultural groups, classification, and first-generation college students. The study utilized 119 participants (N = 119). The anticipated sample was 150 participants. Freshmen were disqualified from participation. Students were given the link to the researcher’s questionnaire through the researcher’s selected professor. They answered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), which measured support from family, friends, and a “significant other” (Zimet et al., 1988). Application of the findings of this study are encouraged to be used in the development of student outreach and socialization programs. Future research will focus on integrating freshmen and determining a minimum score of social support and grade point average.
- ItemA STUDY OF THE INCLUSION OF SPIRITUAL RITUALS AND MINDFUL BEHAVIORS AS A MEANS OF COPING AND STRESS MANAGEMENTPettigrew, Jacqueline LatanyaPettigrew, Jacqueline L., A Study of the Inclusion of Spiritual Rituals and Mindful Behaviors as a Means of Coping and Stress Management. Master of Arts (Psychology), December 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to evaluate an unbiased understanding of mindful behaviors and spiritual rituals and their influence if any on the study participants. This research examined 100 random undergraduate college students of a private, urban university located in southern Texas. As a part of the researcher’s introduction to the study, participants completed a Traditional College Student Stress Scale as well as answered pre–interview questions regarding their understanding of stress, stress level, how they feel as well as their current coping strategies. Participants were also given the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, which was used to assess their use and understanding of mindful behaviors. The questionnaire was administered at the beginning as well as at the end of the research. The questionnaire provided the researcher insight on the participants’ level of understanding as it relates to their personal experiences. The participants partook in a five–week intervention that consisted of the inclusion of spiritual rituals and mindfulness practices into their everyday life as a means of developing stress management and coping skills. The participants were also asked to log their personal reflections after each experience and complete the Perceived Stress Scale questionnaire weekly to monitor any change post their spiritual and/or mindful experience. At the close of the five–week intervention, participants answered post–interview questions regarding their experience with the spiritual rituals, mindful behaviors, and stress to determine if changes occurred in their questionnaire and/or interview responses. The findings of this study examined the influence of spiritual rituals and mindful behaviors regarding developing stress management, and coping skills. This research also assessed the influence spiritual rituals and mindful behaviors had on participants’ stress levels.
- ItemDifferences in Reading Comprehension Levels for Students Between Traditional Reading and Audio Recording MethodsDiBacco, KathleenAs personal technology has become increasingly integrated and accessible into the daily lives of people of all ages, it has changed how all people, specifically young children, and adolescents, interact with the world around them. New technology significantly alters the landscape of education, and the current rise in personal technology has the potential to enhance the learning process. With the increase in accessibility and advertisement of audiobooks to children and adolescents without learning disorders or visual disability, there is a responsibility to determine the effect that audiobooks may have on the development of a healthy adolescent brain. Additionally, millions of students rely on alternative accommodations to even the playing field in their educational environment. There is an obligation to these students to ensure that they are receiving appropriate and effective accommodations that do not compromise the validity of standardized testing or the confidentiality of the students. The focus on developmental learning disorders and early reading skills in past research on the topic of audiobooks leaves room to discover the impact that this technology can have on more mature readers who do not experience the difficulties associated with a learning disorder. This study aims to discover the effect of audiobooks used in place of traditional reading on healthy adolescents’ reading comprehension levels.
- ItemCourting Versus Dating and the perceptions among college studentsWhitfield, Taylor LaShaunThis study would have looked at the perceptions of courting or dating among college students. The study would have included approximately 200 college students that would be conveniently chosen who would have completed a survey online through Survey Monkey. Each of the participants would have answered questions regarding dating and long-term relationships. The questionnaire would ask questions such as how they perceive dating and courting, as well as how they perceive themselves in relationships. The questions asked would record the answers of the participants to obtain the participants’ perception of courting versus dating. The response from the participants would have reflected an overall general idea of what college students prefer in regard to courtship and dating and how their decision may impact on future generations.
- ItemEquine Assisted Psychotherapy: Lowering Symptoms of Psychological Distress in VeteransBroadway, Dakota ElloiseThis study conducted a meta-analysis in order to determine the efficacy equine assisted psychotherapy (EAP) has on lowering symptoms of psychological distress in veterans. Existing literature focuses on how EAP is effective for child populations, however, this study was designed to focus on the use of horses and horse care as a means of intervention for adults. The methodology for this study was based off Nimer and Lundahl’s (2007) procedures from their meta-analysis on animal assisted therapy. Effect sizes across studies were calculated and outcome measures including psychological functioning, social functioning, and interpersonal functioning were grouped together in order to determine heterogeneity among studies. Results suggested mixed interpretation among effect sizes. While some outcome variables suggested positive improvements in symptoms, others suggested no change. Additionally, heterogeneity among studies suggested no standardization in methodological procedures. In conclusion, EAP for veterans lacks enough information to determine its efficacy across studies.
- ItemThe Impact of Relationship Status on Perceived Body Image in FemalesRocha, Marissa ArellanoThe present study examines how a woman’s relationship status correlates to her body image satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. The study uses various methods, including the Body Image Satisfaction Scale, Contour Drawing Rating Scale, Life Satisfaction Index, and Self-Esteem Measure. These assessments were given to students in various classes at a Christian university in the southwest during the spring 2019 semester. Students completed an online survey regarding these measures to determine any correlation. The study determined that women with high life satisfaction, generally, had high self-esteem. The longer the time in the, the higher both a woman’s self-esteem and life satisfaction. The current study indicates that a woman’s relationship status or not had no effect on a woman’s body image. Regarding race/ethnicity, African American women had the highest average in both self-esteem and body image. African American women had the lowest average in terms of life satisfaction. In the self-esteem and body image categories, Asians or Asian American women had the lowest average.
- ItemMotivational dimensions associated with helping after Hurricane HarveyLopez, Celestino H.The present research measured what type of motivation was used for helping others after Hurricane Harvey. The two types of motivation this study focused on was intrinsic and extrinsic. Additionally, the researcher examined how sex and empathy correlated with helping. A convenience sample of 86 undergrad students from a small Christian university participated in an online survey that measured these variables. Several questions were answered following this research; Females did not show significantly higher levels of intrinsic motivation and helping behavior than males. However, females did show significantly higher levels of empathy than males. Although empathy and helping were positively correlated, the direction was positive but strength was minimal. Finally, males did not show significantly higher levels of extrinsic motivation than females. The IMI (Intrinsic Motivations Inventory) assessment, the BES (Basic Empathy Scale) questionnaire, and the WPI (Work Preference Inventory) assessment were used to measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as how empathy played a role in helping. The data were analyzed using parametric tests (four t-tests and two correlations) by utilizing the latest version of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
- ItemA LITERATURE REVIEW ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CELL PHONE USAGE AND SLEEP QUALITYHall, Joshua HudsonSmart phones and portable mobile devices are the new normal in the United States. Much of the research thus far has focused on the effects of screen-use on children and adolescents: lower attention spans, difficulty concentrating, and academic performance to name a few. Research would be remiss to exclude adults from this conversation. Society has yet to fully understand the long-term effects of personalized mobile devices on the human brain. This review aims to analyze the relationship between smartphone use and sleep quality in adult subjects. Individuals that use these handheld computers are sacrificing free thought and critical thinking. The aspects of social media are a gift to some and for others it is a tool that disrupts precious sleeping time.