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ItemVoices from Within: Alternative Certified Teachers' Perspective on Preparedness Working in High Needs Elementary SchoolsOsorio, AdaThis study investigates the effectiveness of alternative routes to teacher certification in urban school districts within Texas. The need for teachers across the United States has increased because current teachers are leaving the profession at high rates. This research analyzes the programs regarding teacher preparation routes, teacher preparedness, and the effect teacher preparation programs have on teacher longevity. This study includes interview data from current teachers to evaluate the perceived preparation of alternative certified teachers based on their authentic voices. To examine the teacher’s perceptions of alternative certification routes and how well they feel prepared, interviews are conducted. The interviews use seven teachers who completed an alternative certification program and work in a high-needs elementary school. This study seeks to answer the following research questions: 1)How do alternative certified teachers perceive the usefulness of their preparatory program to their current career?, 2)How do alternative certified teachers perceive induction programs that include support through mentoring, professional development, and in-service opportunities?, 3) How do relationships with school staff, administration, parents, and the community affect an alternative certified teacher’s self-image and effectiveness?, 4) What relationships exist between alternative certified teachers’ perception of themselves and job satisfaction, personal fulfillment, and goals?, and 5)Where do alternative certified teachers see themselves in the future? Why will you stay? Why will you leave (Redman, 2015)? It is concluded that teachers are leaving the profession due to alternative certification programs not fully preparing them to enter the classrooms of Title One campuses. Keywords: alternative certification, teacher preparedness, traditional certification, high needs school, Title One school, teacher turnover rate, novice teacher ItemAn Analysis of Best Practices To Teach Formal Writing Skills in AP High School CoursesWalker, ShaTrieceFormal writing skills are essential to the professional development of students planning to attend college or the work force upon graduating from high school. This quantitative study examines best practices and frequencies for writing using AP high school courses across content areas. This study will provide evidence of how frequencies of best practices for writing contributes to student writing success which can be reflected on outcome scores demonstrated on AP exams. 9 th through 12th grade teachers who teach AP courses in English, History, Math, and Science answer a 19 question survey which outlined best practices for writing and different frequencies for student engagement. There are a total of nine best practices which include identifying similarities, summary and practice, providing recognition and reinforcing effort, non-linguistic representation, cooperative learning environment, setting objectives and providing feedback, generating and testing hypothesis, and cues, questions, and graphic organizers are some of the best practices that are considered throughout this study. Each survey question asks about the best practices and the frequency is determined in the following manner: never, yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily. At the end of the study, the research will provide evidence of best practices for writing are used across AP content areas to help students improve their writing and develop their writing capabilities. ItemUNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR INSTRUCTION: EXPERIENCES OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN POST-SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONSTaylor, Jeremiah NekiteABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this Phenomenological study was be to explore the experiences of students in post-secondary education institutions regarding faculty efforts to differentiate the instruction and make instructional accommodations for students who struggle academically. Methodology In this study, the researcher used both quantitative and qualitative research methodology of phenomenology to explore the experiences of students in post-secondary educational institutions regarding faculty efforts to differentiate the instruction and make instructional accommodations for students who struggle academically. Thus, the researcher gained knowledge as participants answered the survey/ questionnaire. 131 current community college students participated in the survey/questionnaire. Keywords: Universal Design for Instruction, postsecondary, students with disabilities ItemTeachers' Perception of the principal's communication style regarding teacher retention at a selected elementary schoolStarling , Maria ValannaABSTRACT Starling, Maria Valanna Starling, Teachers’ Perception of The Principal’s Communication Style Regarding Teacher Retention at a Selected Elementary School. Doctor of Education (Educational Leadership) May, 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of the principals’ communication styles regarding the retention of teachers in grades kindergarten through fifth at a selected elementary school. The participants for this study were purposefully selected from the population of teachers that were employed at a selected elementary school in South East Texas. Methodology In this descriptive study, the researcher used the qualitative research methodology of hermeneutical phenomenology. In so doing, the researcher gained knowledge as the participants shared their feelings and described their perceptions from their own experiences. A total of 47 participants addressed most questions on the survey and returned it to the researcher. All five of the focus group participants reported to the researcher regarding questions provided. Findings The electronic survey was disseminated to 47 teachers and 47 responded and completed the electronic survey. Of the 47 participants who completed the online survey (the modified Purdue Teacher Opinionnaire), the first five to express interest in participating in the focus group interview were selected. The researcher analyzed data (reported in Chapter IV) from 47 participants who completed the online survey and five focus group participants. The demographics of the participants included six (12.77%) males and 41 (87.23%) females. Participants’ ages ranged from 21 to 58 and above, taught grades Pre-K through fifth grade, the number of years of experience ranged from one to more than 25 years, and represented various racial groups (White or Caucasian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian or Asian American, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Another race - not Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander). Conclusions The participants for this study provided honest, authentic, and valuable information about the topic. The data collected and analyzed allowed the researcher to identify implications for professional practice to support students and educators at all levels. In addition to identifying implications for professional practice, the data analysis informed the researchers’ recommendations for future studies. While this study filled a portion of the void in literature pertaining to principals’ leadership and communication styles, continued exploration is well warranted. KEY WORDS: Assertive communication, Aggressive communication, Passive-Aggressive communication, Submissive communication, Manipulative communication, Teacher retention, Teacher retention, Teacher attrition, Communication, Elementary school, Principal, Influence, School climate ItemSEE ME: HOW MINORITY HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES WITH INCARCERATED PARENTS PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS PUBLIC-SCHOOL STUDENTSVasquez, KyleneThere is a fast-growing population of students experiencing trauma. As a result, school leaders need to improve individual and collective awareness as trauma-informed educators who are privy to how different social and emotional stressors impact student identities. Therefore, this qualitative phenomenological study aims to describe how minority high school graduates with incarcerated parents perceived themselves as public-school students in Southeast Texas. Findings revealed the following essence across this subgroup: students concluded that their educators' perception of them impacted their overall educational experience in one primary way—it influenced their perception of decision making. Thus, because children conformed to the idea that whatever educators believe of them is what represented them—an integrated experience—they either were nourished or admonished as students in public school systems. Implications for practice were significant to the dense study, but the direct implications are for educational leaders and other non-profit youth organizations. ItemEFFECTS AND EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN SINGLE MOTHERS PURSUING AN ADVANCED DEGREE WHILE RAISING CHILDRENRhone, Erica AlwannaABSTRACT Rhone, Erica. Effects and Experiences of African American Single Mothers Pursuing An Advanced While Raising Children, Doctor of Education in Executive Educational Leadership, March 2023, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Although single student mothers are the largest and fastest-growing student demographic in higher education institutions, the experiences of single mothers in academia remain under-explored, as the increase in literature addresses the experiences of women in higher education. Obtaining graduate level education is an ongoing challenge for single mothers to overcome because of their historical disadvantages. This multiple-case study examined African American single mothers' experiences in graduate programs, focusing on the factors that affect their graduation degree completion rates, such as childcare support, academic support services, institutional support, and mentorship, which may have helped them complete their degrees. A multiple-case study research design was used in this study. The study involved single African American mother participants’ experiences pursuing an advanced degree while raising children. Selected participants were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions designed to elicit their perceptions. Audio recordings and manual transcriptions of the interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analyzed and data coded to highlight themes and trends. This study will benefit post-secondary institution programs by improving their ability to assist single-parent students in pursuing advanced degrees. Keywords: African American, single mothers, single parent student mothers, advanced degree ItemA DESCRIPTION OF THE CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN FEMALE PRESIDENTS AT POST-SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONSSmith, Chaundra LatriceABSTRACT Smith, Chaundra L., A description of the challenges and successes of African American female presidents at post-secondary educational institutions. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May, 9, 2020, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of African American females regarding their progression toward presidency at post-secondary educational institutions. This study described the experiences of current African American female presidents in the academy in reaching their level of professional success. Methodology Five participants, who self-identified as African American female presidents, were the first presidents of their college. They shared their experiences by responding to research questions that allowed them to expound on challenges and successes encountered before, during and after achieving the position of College President. Findings from the study indicated that gender presented a challenge for participants, as they had to continuously prove themselves to colleagues and subordinates that they could do the job well. In addition, the study's findings emphasized the importance and huge advantage mentoring played in each participant's experience and in shaping the perception of each participant's self-image and confidence. Networking, training, and being knowledgeable about politics, administration, financials, and administration were also found to be essential and pertinent to the journey of college president. In conclusion, this study provides a description of the challenges and successes of African American female presidents Findings Two emergent themes were identified in the examination of the challenges African American female presidents encountered during their journey to presidency, gender and race. Participants expressed how their gender and race were challenges for them as they pursued the seat of president. These challenges continued even after obtaining the executive position but became motivating factors for the participants. Five emergent themes materialized when looking at successful strategies that helped participants obtain the president position: mentoring, spirituality, and family, networking and training. Mentoring showed to be a heavily viable source for the participants and something they encourage and do themselves. Spirituality was another successful strategy participants relied on heavily to navigate the injustices and challenges that could have easily begot them, but instead allowed them to continue their journey to the position. Family was the support each participant needed to conjugate who they were with the work they did and be effective in both. Networking provided participants with connections needed to get into otherwise closed doors and be exposed to individuals who could help in reaching the presidency. Training was a necessary component to achieve the position and be successful in the position. Training allowed participants to be better acclimated with the operations, politics, and better know and understand the institution as a whole. Conclusions The responses from participants in this study described the challenges encountered on their journey to becoming college president. Based on the responses by participants it is imperative African American females understand the challenges that will arise and utilize successful strategies of good mentorship, spirituality, family, networking, and proper training. The researcher’s aspiration is that the findings of this study will encourage aspiring African American female leaders to embark upon the journey of becoming a college/university president. KEY WORDS: African American Female, Critical Race Theory, Gender, Glass ceiling, Marginalization, Mentoring, President, Post-secondary education; Black Feminist Thought, Challenges, Success ItemSelection, Induction, Placement, and Development of Novice Mathematics and Science Teachers in Transformation SchoolsWilliams, Donelle N.The first five years of teaching are believed to be crucial in a school district’s teacher retention efforts. The challenge novice teachers face to meet learners’ academic, social, and emotional needs within a school community can prove to be especially daunting. Additionally, the context in which teachers learn to teach such as easier-to-staff schools versus difficult-to-staff schools and their placement can be correlated with teachers’ successes, student achievement gains, teacher preparedness, and teacher growth and development. Given such, this research examined the selection, placement, induction, and development processes of novice grade five mathematics and science teachers within a niche environment and a large, urban school district—transformation schools—to address the documented problem of attrition, preparedness, and academic readiness in these schools within critical needs areas: mathematics and science. To accomplish this purpose, the researcher conducted one-on-one interviews with human resource administrators and principals, a Panorama survey was provided to teachers, and a focus group session was held. Data were analyzed to extract themes related to the procedures for selection, induction, placement, and development of grade five mathematics and science teachers who teach in transformation schools. Keywords: implicit bias, novice teachers, situated learning, teacher preparation, transformation schools, science education, mathematics education ItemONLINE DELIVERY OF MINDFULNESS PRACTICE: TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF MINDFULNESS, STRESS, AND SELF-EFFICACYNipper, Molly CThe role of the teacher is vital in promoting a classroom climate that supports student learning and social-emotional well-being. However, little consideration is given to offering interventions to support teachers in reducing stress and burnout that result in teacher turnover. Studies have concluded mindfulness practices to be an effective intervention for teachers to reduce stress, increase emotional regulation, and promote well-being. The restrictions resulting from the global COVID-19 pandemic caused many educational institutions to shift to a distance learning model. The applications of online mindfulness for classroom teachers are just beginning to be explored, with few studies investigating the effects of online mindfulness training for teachers. The purpose of this case study was to examine teacher perceptions of mindfulness, stress, and self-efficacy following a district-led online delivery of mindfulness at a selected public school in southeast Texas. The study involved participants experienced with online delivery of mindfulness training in the school year 2020–2021 and who continued mindfulness practice in 2021–2022 school year. A mixed-methods research approach was used in this case study. The findings from the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire- Short Form revealed awareness was statistically significant. Findings from the Perceived Stress Scale revealed 66% of participants had moderate stress levels. The Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale-Short Form findings revealed all the variables were statistically significantly different from how teachers perceived the delivery of teacher self-efficacy. ItemTHE IMPACT OF ADMINISTRATORS’ INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT ON TEACHER EFFICACY FOR PREPARING STUDENTS FOR HIGH-STAKES ONLINE TESTINGEtter, SarahThe purpose of the research was to examine the impact of administrators’ instructional technology leadership development on teacher efficacy for preparing students for high-stake online testing. The ten Texas administrators were interviewed two times in this multiple case study to determine if their capacity for instructional technology leadership development was changed by the professional learning they completed, and if their learning resulted in changes to teacher efficacy. The central question framing this study was: What is the impact of administrators’ instructional technology leadership development on teacher efficacy for preparing students for high-stakes online testing? The following sub-questions helped to guide the research: Sub-question 1: Does the administrator’s leadership development for the transition to online testing impact their leadership behaviors? Sub-question 2: What are the administrator’s perceptions of the impact of their leadership development on teacher efficacy for the transition to online testing? The findings of the study indicated that the administrators believed their professional learning did increase their instructional technology leadership capacity. The administrators also indicated that they believed that teachers’ efficacy for preparing students for the mandated online administration of the State of Texas Assessment for Academic Readiness in the spring of 2023 increased due to their leadership. The cross-case analysis revealed that cultural conditions of future-focused thinking, risk taking, collaborative learning, and shared vision paired with capacity conditions of systems designed to respond to change, reduce implementation barriers, and opportunities for engagement and experience with the online testing platform through professional learning resulted in increased instructional technology leadership capacity and increased teacher efficacy. The implications for practice are that appropriate amounts of time and opportunities should be provided for effective implementation of an online testing platform and that instructional technology leadership should prioritize context-specific professional learning and approach instructional technology implementation from a change management perspective. Instructional technology leadership professional learning should be experiential and grounded in the specific instructional tool or platform that prepares the administrator to act as a mentor of support as teachers use the tool or platform. ItemA PHENOMENOLOGICAL NARRATIVE STUDY OF SUCCESSFUL AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES WHO WERE IDENTIFIED AS SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN THE K-12 SETTINGKing, Roshundria Valee Kishun JanaABSTRACT King, Roshundria., A Phenomenological narrative study of successful African American males who were identified as special education students in the K-12 Setting. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership), May 2018, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this phenomenological narrative was to understand the experiences of successful African American males who were identified as special education students while in the K-12 setting. For this study, successful African American males are defined as those who completed and graduated from a post-secondary institution. All six individuals who participated in the research study were former special education students who received a post-secondary degree. The participants self-identified their own experiences as a special education student. The research questions allowed for further investigation into how special education disabilities’ stereotypes were overcome. Findings indicated that self-motivation is the most dominant components of participants who received a post-secondary degree. Findings also emphasized the importance of the positive impact of mentors and mother figures. This study provides current and former African American males of special education with knowledge about how to overcome the stigma associated with special education disabilities. KEY WORDS: African American Males, Successful, Self-determination, Disproportionate/Overrepresentation, Emotional and Behavior disorder, IDEA, Pedagogy, Post-secondary education, Response to Intervention (RTI) ItemTEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING IN TITLE I SCHOOLSBorner, Latricia TreniseABSTRACT Borner, Latricia Trenise, Teachers’ Perceptions Regarding the Implementation of Social-Emotional Learning in Title I Schools. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership) December, 2018, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore teachers’ perceptions of the implementation of social-emotional learning in Title I schools and its influence on student outcomes. The research design of this study used a qualitative phenomenological approach involving a school in an urban Texas school district. The study focused on teachers’ responses to survey questions designed to gather expressed feelings and perceptions of the influence social-emotional learning has on student outcomes in Title I schools. The researcher chose to use the phenomenological methodology because it allowed insight into the perceptions and lived experiences of teachers experiencing the phenomena at the time of the study. The emergent themes for research question one were positive learning environment, positive peer-to-peer and student-teacher relationships, and lower suspension rate. The emergent themes from research question two were relationships and coping skills. The emergent themes for research question three were classroom discussions, check-ins and journal writing. Based on responses from participants in this study, the implementation of social-emotional learning in Title I schools has a positive outcome on student behavior and academic achievement. The participants also identified how teachers implement social-emotional learning in their classrooms on a daily basis, affecting positive change in student outcomes academically and behaviorally. The researcher hopes that the findings of this study will serve as a guide to school and district leaders who are considering how to change exclusionary discipline practices and support the ‘whole child’. KEY WORDS: Social-emotional learning, Student outcomes, Academic achievement, Title I schools ItemTEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ONE TO ONE TECHNOLOGY USE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS CLASSES IN A LARGE URBAN DISTRICTBlackmon, Shelbi MarieBlackmon, Shelbi M., Teachers Perceptions of One to One Technology Use in ELA Classes in a Large Urban District. Doctor of Education (EdD in Executive Educational Leadership), Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas, May 2020. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to examine teachers’ perceptions of one-to- one technology use in ninth and eleventh grade English classes and the influence on student outcomes. The researcher used qualitative and quantitative research methodology to explore and more clearly describe the essence of teachers’ perceptions of technology and the effects on student engagement and achievement in the classroom. The researcher also explored how technology in a one-to-one classroom effects attitudes of teachers and collected student outcome data by nesting student outcomes by each teacher. For this mixed-method study, the researcher purposefully selected from the populations of English teachers currently teaching ninth or eleventh grade at three urban high schools. Keywords: one-to-one technology, student engagement, technology integration, student outcomes, ELA ItemEXPERIENCES OF FEMALE TRACK AND FIELD COACHES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS REGARDING THEIR OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE WORKPLACEHarper, Jennifer LynetteThe purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the experiences of female track and field coaches in secondary schools regarding their opportunities and challenges in the workplace. The researcher used the qualitative phenomenological research methodology to explain and describe the essence and perceptions of female secondary track and field coaches regarding their experiences in the workplace. In so doing, the researcher gained knowledge about the experiences of female track of field coaches as the participants shared their feelings, described their perceptions, and sensed their self-awareness. Participants were purposefully selected from the populations of female secondary track and field coaches in the greater Houston area. Potential participants' email addresses were obtained from professional coaching organizations, including Texas High School Coaches Association, USATF Gulf Coast Association, U.S, and social media. Female coaches were invited to participate in the study via email, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Eleven female coaches were invited to participate in the study, complete the consent form, and participate in an interview. A portion of the Lars and Proctor's Interview Guide was used in this study. The instrument contained open-ended questions, including personal and professional background questions. The Ecological Model of Barriers and Supports for Female Coaches (LaVoi & Dutove, 2012) was used to create additional questions used in the interview process for professional coaching experience, and the professional work environment. The questions focused on secondary female coaches' supports and barriers in the workplace. Participants were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire and invited to be interviewed via Zoom. In this study, a purposeful sample was selected based on the specific criteria that was developed to meet expectations for this study. This study found stress and burnout, lack of staff support, good ol’ boys club, and leadership stereotypes and marginalization to be barriers that female track and field coaches experience in the workplace. Participants shared that being a successful athlete, single without children, having a female coach, personality, skills, knowledge and experience, staff support, family work balance, and connecting with coaches to be supports that female track and field coaches experience in the workplace. Keywords: female athletic coaches, female track and field coach, female high-performance coaches, barriers, ItemPERCEPTIONS OF HEALTHCARE HUMAN RESOURCE DIRECTORS REGARDING HIRING WITH COLLEGE DEGREES OR WORK EXPERIENCE: A NARRATIVE QUALITATIVE STUDYWincher, Lesha DanielleThe purpose of this proposed research study was to examine and analyze the perceptions of Human Resource directors in the Healthcare field regarding hiring with college degrees or work experience, specifically, those in clinical vs. non-clinical positions. This study sought to uncover if employer demand for skills and education influence hiring and wage decisions. Many individuals question if it is necessary to obtain a college degree, given that many notable self-made entrepreneurs who skipped post-secondary education are deemed as successful. This study examined the hiring process for entry-level hires regarding whether gaining practical work experience is more relevant than having a college degree. The specific variables that were investigated included whether receiving practical work experience is more prevalent in hiring decisions than receiving a college degree. Specifically, some career fields require more practical work experience before being hired. Some career fields require a college degree and no practical work experience before being hired. This research study examined the hiring processes for entry-level hires who either have a college degree or only work experience. In this study, 75% of the participants stated that it is necessary to obtain a formal education as opposed to not having one. A few participants in this study shared that not only holding a formal education, but also having practical work experience prior to entering in the healthcare field is critical for success. ItemEXPLORING THE VALUE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CRISIS COMMUNICATION TRAINING FOR HIGHER EDUCATION LEADERSHIPMitha, Zeenat KassamThis study purposed to understand the essence of crisis in higher education and to guide educational leaders on pre-crisis strategies to lessen the damage if a crisis were to occur. Additionally, this study sought to make an easier transition for post-crisis management and maintain positive relations with stakeholders and the community. Crises in higher education can cause tremendous distress to the entire institution, whether because of a natural disaster or a human-instigated disaster. This might either destroy an institution, create financial suffering, or take time to win back the support of stakeholders. The literature on crises in higher education has mostly revolved around how to handle negative situations as a post-crisis thought. Public relations is considered an area that institutions turn to when they are going through a crisis. This study reviewed how public relations can play a role prior to a crisis. This study also explored the process of building relationships before a crisis occurs. This research also examined pragmatic perspectives so further understanding took place about crisis difficulties to assist educational leaders in communicating effectively and creating a game plan and solutions for handling crises. In addition, this research highlighted the importance of public relations and making continuous communication with stakeholders a priority. ItemAFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN EDUCATIONAL LEADERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONSBrown , LenaAbstract Brown, L., African American Women Educational Leaders’ Perceptions of Mental Health Interventions. Doctor of Education (Executive Educational Leadership in Mental Health and Human Services), May, 2022, Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas. This study explores the perceptions of African American women in educational leadership roles regarding mental health interventions. This study also has a purpose of identifying the mental health interventions that African American women in educational leadership feel most comfortable participating in. The long-term effects of mental health services on a personal and professional level are discussed as well. This study uses a mixed methods approach, which includes a resilience questionnaire followed by individual interviews of ten African American women in various educational leadership positions. Three major themes were discovered through the process of data collection as well. (1) Religion and church communities are the preferred method of combatting mental health concerns, (2) African American women in educational leadership roles have an exceptional level of resilience, and (3) Stigma is still a lingering issue in the African American community as it relates to mental health. ItemPerceptions of African American Males Regarding Supports for School SuccessTwumasi, Akua PokuaahThe purpose of this study was to examine African American male’s perceptions regarding factors that support school success. In doing so, it is important for the researcher to examine African American male’s perceptions regarding barriers to school success and their recommendations for supports that may increase the probability of school success. Participants for this study include a convenience sample of 30 high school graduates, from Title I high schools, currently enrolled in a post-secondary institution. All of the participants must be of African descent, identify African American, or they may be bi-racial and identify African American. The research questions provided opportunity to further investigate what African American males perceive as supports for and barriers to school success. Also, the perceptions that African American males have regarding recommendations for supports that may increase the probability of school success. The emergent themes of this study indicate that the African American males that participated in this study consider a presence of a support system, mentorship, and positive role models to be the most crucial supports to school success. These supports aided them in overcoming what they considered barriers to their school success, which included negative or unstable environments, financial issues, and lack of support. ItemThe Relationship between Principal Self-Efficacy and Campus Accountability RatingsRogers, RenotaThis study investigated the relationship between principal self-efficacy and campus accountability rating and whether there were any differences in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy based on campus rating. 29 public school principals in Texas elected to participate in the study which included demographic questions, a question related to outcome expectancy and the 15 questions that comprise the Norwegian Self-Efficacy for Instructional Leadership Scale. Participants were assigned the label of Rated or Not-Rated based on the 2022 campus accountability rating assigned by the state education agency. Independent samples t-tests and biserial point correlation analysis were run to analyze the data. A significant, positive relationship was found between campus accountability rating and self-efficacy building a collective culture. Results approaching significance were identified in multiple areas including the difference in self-efficacy based on gender. No significant difference was noted in the expected outcome for principals of Rated and Not-Rated campuses. The results provide insight on the needs of principals in the areas of school improvement, professional development and principal preparation programs. Keywords: accountability, principal leadership, self-efficacy, campus rating ItemA Mixed Methods Analysis of Organizational Health and Its Impact on High School Assistant Principal BurnoutSells, Britney RThis mixed methods study analyzed the effect organizational health has on high school assistant principal burnout. The Organizational Health framework for secondary schools consists of seven dimensions: Institutional Integrity, Initiating Structure, Consideration, Principal Influence, Resource Support, Morale, and Academic Emphasis (Hoy & Feldman, 1987). The Maslach Burnout Inventory measures an individual's experience with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment within the workplace (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Participant responses to the Organizational Health Inventory for Secondary Schools (Hoy & Feldman, 1987), the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators Survey (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), and the open-ended responses will collectively ascertain the assistant principal's workplace experiences. Participants were assistant principals from high schools within several independent school districts in Southeast, Texas. Through mixed methods data analysis, relationships were found within the constructs of the MBI-ES and OHI-S. The qualitative data provided themes of supporting the well-being of others, negative attitudes, and leading through crisis. Relationships, recognition, support, communication with stakeholders, self-efficacy, and mental health emerged as subthemes.